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AXL, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is expressed in a variety of cancers and has been revealed as the most highly expressed gene in preclinical models with acquired resistance, and second most common alteration in EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor-resistant tumors, behind the T790M mutation. It has become obvious that targeted therapy of patients has to be monitored by taking and analyzing biopsies on a regular basis. Therefore, laboratory methods have to be adapted.
Congenital infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of non-genetic birth defects, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HCMV is a top priority for public health. The gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells, and it is a major target for neutralizing antibody responses. To better understand the mechanism by which antibodies interact with the epitopes of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex resulting in viral neutralization, we expressed and purified soluble gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex and gH/gL from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Our results highlight the importance of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex in HCMV vaccine design and emphasize the necessity to monitor the integrity of the pentameric complex during vaccine manufacturing process.
Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and is frequently amplified or over-expressed in both solid tumors and hematological malignancies, suggesting that its activity may be important for the survival of cancer cells. CDK9 inhibition results in the down regulation of Mcl-1 mRNA and subsequent protein levels by inhibiting transcription and represents an indirect approach to targeting Mcl-1. Mcl-1 can also be targeted directly using an inhibitor that disrupts the Mcl-1 complexes to induce apoptosis.
Alzheimer disease (AD) affects mainly people over the age of 65 years, suffering from different clinical symptoms such as progressive decline in memory, thinking, language, and learning capacity. The toxic role of beta amyloid peptide (Ab) has now shifted from insoluble Ab fibrils to smaller, soluble oligomeric Ab aggregates (AβO). Many evidences suggest that the neurodegenerative process would be due to the interaction of AβO with binding targets, activation of stress kinases, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, caspase activation, loss of synapse, neuronal death, loss of cholinergic function, generation of reactive intermediates of oxygen (oxidative stress), or glutamate excitotoxicity. Urgent need for efficient new therapies is high, but could only be successful with an extensively comprehension of AβO degeneration process. In the present work, based on an in vitro primary cell culture treated with AβO preparation, we have carefully studied the cytopathological effects of AβO on neuronal death and then we have investigated the effect of 17-beta Estradiol (β-estr) on the degeneration process induced by AβO. Briefly we used rat cortical neurons (from E15). The cells were seeded in 96-well plates and intoxicated with AβO solution after 11 days of culture for 24 hours. β-estr was used at 100 nM (final concentration) and was added as pretreatment (1h before injuries). A co-incubation with selective inhibitors was performed for the mechanistic study. In parallel, western blotting (WB) analysis was done to quantify protein levels and their activation. We showed that β-estr was able to significantly protect neurons as well as glial cells from degeneration decreasing the caspase 3 activation and the massive mitochondrial stress (induced by AβO). Preservation of neurite network and synapsis integrity was also observed. Moreover, the large hyperphosphorylation of tau protein induced by AβO was significantly reduced with β-Estr. A mechanistic study was also performed co-incubating inhibitors of main survival pathways to try to better understand the mode of action of β-estr and the pathway involved in the AβO toxicity. We showed that the effects of -Estr were fully abolished blocking the MEK pathway as well as the DNA repair pathway (PARP-g) or the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic pathway (Bcl2). Interestingly the effect was inexisting coincubating β-estr with TrK receptor or Ras/Raf inhibitors showing the predominant role of growth factors paythway in its neuroprotective effect. Finally, we showed a large inactivation of AKT protein in presence of AβO that was reversed even over activated in presence of β-Estr.